Wednesday, July 17, 2013

1307.4099 (Peter Lundqvist et al.)

Hydrogen and helium in the spectra of Type Ia supernovae    [PDF]

Peter Lundqvist, Seppo Mattila, Jesper Sollerman, Cecilia Kozma, E. Baron, Nick L. J. Cox, Claes Fransson, Bruno Leibundgut, Jason Spyromilio
We present predictions for hydrogen and helium emission line luminosities from circumstellar matter around Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using time dependent photoionization modeling. ESO/VLT optical echelle spectra of the SN Ia 2000cx were taken before and up to 70 days after maximum. We detect no hydrogen and helium lines, and place an upper limit on the mass loss rate for the putative wind of less than 1.3EE{-5} solar masses per year, assuming a speed of 10 km/s and solar abundances for the wind. In a helium-enriched case, the best line to constrain the mass loss would be He I 10,830 A. We confirm the details of interstellar Na I and Ca II absorption towards SN 2000cx as discussed by Patat et al., but also find evidence for 6613.56 A Diffuse Interstellar Band (DIB) absorption in the Milky Way. We discuss measurements of the X-ray emission from the interaction between the supernova ejecta and the wind and we re-evaluate observations of SN 1992A obtained 16 days after maximum by Schlegel & Petre. We find an upper limit of 1.3EE{-5} solar masses per year. These results, together with the previous observational work on the normal SNe Ia 1994D and 2001el, disfavour a symbiotic star in the upper mass loss rate regime from being the likely progenitor scenario for these SNe. To constrain hydrogen in late time spectra, we present ESO/VLT and ESO/NTT optical and infrared observations of SNe Ia 1998bu and 2000cx 251-388 days after maximum. We see no hydrogen line emission in SNe 1998bu and 2000cx at these epochs, and we argue from modeling that the mass of such hydrogen-rich gas must be less than 0.03 solar masses for both supernovae. Comparing similar upper limits with recent models of Pan et al., it seems hydrogen-rich donors with a separation of less than 5 times the radius of the donor may be ruled out for the five SNe Ia 1998bu, 2000cx, 2001el, 2005am and 2005cf.
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